Outenikwaland is derived from the Khoi tribe name, Outeniqua and (Afri: land) It is the name of the region between the Towns of Knysna and Mosselbay south of the Majestic Outenikwa Mountains.
‘Outeniqua’ or Houteniquase (31.3.1690 as per VOC archives is said to be derived from a Khoisan tribe that once lived in these mountains and means “they who bear honey”. Rock paintings from the Khoisan people can still be found in the area.
The range is characterized by gentle southern slopes and steep drops on the north side down to the low valley Little Karoo. High points include Cradock Peak at 1578 m and George Peak at 1370 m located to the north of George. The varying conditions create diverse habitats. On the south-facing slopes there is montane fynbos at higher, moister altitudes, while the north hosts karroid and renosterveld shrubland. On the mesic southern slopes there are Afromontane gallery forests.
The high rainfall on the range has created numerous perennial streams used for irrigation in the Olifants River valley. While the climate along the range is generally hot to moderate, with an average summer temperature of 20.5 °C, weather conditions can vary greatly. In winter the temperature can drop to 5 °C (and even lower on the southern slopes) and snowfalls may occur on the higher peaks.
Fauna and flora
Among the animals found in the Outeniqua range are klipspringer, grey rhebuck, leopard and various rodents. The Outeniqua mountain range is also home to a very small number of African elephants. Although described as functionally extinct, new sightings of these very elusive animals, including that of a young bull give hope that the fabled animals might with time become re-established in the Outeniqua reserve. Birds include black eagles and other raptors as well as the Cape sugarbird and other fynbos birds.
In 1908 work started on a railway route over the range from George to Oudtshoorn. This required the building of seven tunnels and numerous long cuttings. The line was opened in August 1913.
The first road pass to cross the range into the Langkloof went via Duiwelskop, some 32 km east of George. In 1811 a new pass was constructed and named Cradock Pass after the Governor, Sir John Cradock. It was difficult to negotiate and became known as the ‘Voortrekker Road’. In 1847 a vastly improved Montagu Pass was constructed by convict labour, and named after the Colonial Secretary, John Montagu. In 1943, to cope with the increasing demands of modern traffic, construction was started on the Outeniqua Pass, using the labour of Italian prisoners of war. At the end of World War II the Italians returned home with the greater part of the pass unfinished. The pass was opened to traffic in September 1951, having cost approximately £500 000.
Two other road passes cross the Outeniqua – The Robinson Pass west of George, and Prince Alfred’s Pass connecting Uniondale with Knysna.
On 1 June 2002, Former South Africa Cricket captain Hansie Cronje scheduled flight home from Johannesburg to George, Western Cape was grounded so he hitched a ride as the only passenger on board a Hawker Siddeley HS 748 turboprop aircraft. Near George airport, the pilots lost visibility in clouds and were unable to land, partly due to unusable navigational equipment. While circling, the plane crashed into the Outeniqua mountains northeast of the airport. Cronje, aged 32, and the two pilots were killed instantly.
In the early days of South Africa’s expansion,
when ox-wagons negotiated their way through
impassable mountain ranges, Henry Fancourt
White established a workers’ base at the foot of
the Outeniqua Mountains for the construction of
the Montagu Pass.
The building of Blanco House in the style of a
Cotswold Mansion proceeded slowly from 1859.
Henry, a wealthy man at the time, suffered a
major financial setback in 1860 and died soon
after. Blanco House was put up for auction in
1857: “a thatched-roof double-storey building
with ten airy rooms, kitchen, pantry, outbuildings
and servants’ rooms”.
The property was subsequently owned by Henri
de Maraliac, Robert Drummond and M J Adams,
the latter re-naming it Homewood in 1879. At a
public auction in 1903 Homewood was sold to
Ernest Montagu White who re-named the house
Fancourt in memory of his father – Henry
Ernest, or Montagu as he was known, spent the
English winters at Fancourt. He made extensive
improvements to the house using indigenous
timber from forests in the area. Always
immaculately dressed – a Panama hat and a
flower in his buttonhole being his trademark –
Montagu supervised his estate from a white-
canopied cart drawn by a red ox whilst he
painted watercolours, knotted rugs and lived the
life of a country gentleman.
Sadly, in 1916 Montagu, his sister and a friend
succumbed to mushroom poisoning after
enjoying a dinner of wild mushrooms picked by
Montagu earlier in the day. The house stood
empty for two years after the tragedy. It was said,
however, that the deceased Montagu and
Elizabeth continued to visit their much-loved
Rumours of ghosts did not deter Rubin Greer from
purchasing Fancourt in 1918. He and his family,
which included four daughters, brought music
and laughter back to Fancourt. Legend has it that
performance of the band members at their
dances depended on the liquid refreshment they
consumed. Too little and they refused to play, too
much and they were unable to play!
A number of owners followed, and a century after
Henry Fancourt White built his home it fell into
disrepair due to neglect. Dr Krynauw bought
Fancourt in 1960 and through his skill and
excellent taste, the property became a symbol of
high-class living once again.
In 1969 Fancourt was sold to a property
developer who went into liquidation soon after.
Andre and Helene Pieterse became the new
owners and in 1987 they decided to transform
their country house into an hotel and golf estate
and on 23 March 1989, the Fancourt Hotel
opened in grand style.
By July 1993, however, Fancourt was on the
market once again. In 1994 a German couple,
Hasso and Sabine Plattner, bought the estate out
of liquidation. Expansion and development
proceeded at an unprecedented pace, and when
the present becomes history it will be said that
Fancourt never stopped growing.
The heart of Fancourt is now the modern
clubhouse, but the old Manor House will always
hold its soul. When you visit the estate spend
time in the stillness of the reading room,
appreciate the gardens and walk along the quiet
passages. Imagine life as it was then, with
Panama hats and buttonholes, grand pianos,
campher-wood kists, antique silver and wild
Henry Fancourt White, (1811 Yorkshire – 6
October 1866 George), was a Colonial Assistant
Surveyor from Port Macquarie, Australia who
came to South Africa and played a part in
construction of the Montagu Pass between
George and Oudtshoorn, over the Outeniqua
He was born in Yorkshire in 1811 and emigrated
to the Cape with his parents as British 1820
Settlers. They were allocated land at
Riviersonderend near the mission station of
Genadendal, but resettled at Assegaaibosch in
the Langkloof. He left South Africa for Australia in
order to acquire road-building experience.
White was appointed Assistant Surveyor by the
colonial government in New South Wales. He
surveyed land at Emu Plains for a town after the
convict farm closed in 1832. White arrived in Port
Macquarie in August 1836 and is believed to have
established the first vineyard in the Hastings River
region of Australia in 1837. It was known as
“Clifton”, a name which has been retained for the
area to this day, and was located on land
purchased near Settlement Farm, a stone’s throw
from the Pacific Ocean.
As a surveyor, White was responsible for the siting
of a new road from Port Macquarie westwards to
the New England district, but in 1837 became
involved in a dispute with the Stipendiary
Magistrate, William Nairn Gray. White accused
Gray of altering the line of a road that White had
marked out, so as not to cross land owned by
Major Innes, a wealthy landowner. Gray in turn
accused White of using Government men and
animals on his land at “Clifton”. The Acting
Governor, Colonel Snodgrass, dismissed the
charges against Grey as frivolous. An enquiry held
in Port Macquarie in 1839 resulted in White’s
dismissal from Government service. His efforts at
rescinding this judgement were unsuccessful,
despite an 1842 petition supporting him, being
submitted by a large number of settlers. White
sold his vineyard and some of the land to William
Stokes in 1839.
South Africa 1843-1866
In 1836 Charles Collier Michell, Surveyor-General
of the Cape Colony, had reconnoitred Cradock
Pass and had been horrified by its steep gradients
and poor condition. In 1843 he proposed that
convict labour be used to build a road along an
entirely new route over the Outeniqua Mountains.
In due course this was approved by the colonial
secretary, John Montagu, and work was started in
1844 with H.O. Farrel as superintendent of the
project. The work turned out to be beyond him,
and in his place Montagu appointed Henry
Fancourt White, a qualified surveyor, who had
recently become Road Inspector. Some 250
convicts were used to carry out the demanding
work of constructing the new road. The project
was eventually completed after 4 years’ work at a
cost of ₤35,799 and opened to traffic in
December 1847, with the ceremonial opening
taking place on 19 January 1848 and the Hon.
John Montagu personally attending. Montagu Pass
served as the main road over the Outeniquas for
more than 100 years and it was only with the
completion of the Outeniqua Pass in 1951 that
this old pass became no more than a scenic
Montagu suggested that the tiny roadcamp and
village that grew at the foot of the mountain be
named “White’s Village” in honour of Henry
Fancourt White, but this was subsequently
changed to “Blanco”. “Blanco House”, White’s
residence, was started in 1859 in the style of a
Cotswold Mansion, but White suffered major
financial setbacks in 1860, dying in 1866 and
was buried in the grounds of St. Mark’s Cathedral
in George. His wife died shortly after and her
grave is next to his. His son, Ernest Montagu
White, bought back the property in 1903 and
renamed the house “Fancourt” in memory of his
father, and his grandmother’s maiden name. He
commissioned skilled craftsmen to refurbish the
manor house, using yellowwood, stinkwood and
blackwood to restore its former grace. Ernest, a
philanthropist and successful businessman in his
own right, funded the building of a road from
George to Wilderness and stained glass windows
in St Mark’s Cathedral. He was to die tragically on
10 April 1916, together with his sister, after a
meal of poisonous mushrooms. Today Fancourt is
a provincial heritage site and operates as a hotel
and golfing estate.
White also engineered the road from George to
Great Brak River, the mountain pass from Port
Elizabeth over the Zuurberg Mountains
33°17′12″S 25°42′34″E / 33.28667°S
25.70944°E and Howieson’s Poort pass just west
of Grahamstown. A difference of opinion with
fellow engineer Woodford Pilkington, son of the
Colonial Engineer, led to his leaving the Roads
Board in 1853 and entering politics. He briefly
served as the member for Algoa Bay.
Desomorphine or ‘krokodil’ is an opioid, which
gets its name from how a user’s skin becomes
greenish and scaly, just like that of a crocodile.
It’s reportedly as much as ten times stronger
than heroin and eight-to-ten times stronger than
morphine, but is cheaper and much more toxic.
Usually it is home-cooked.
First produced in the 1930s in the United States,
the desomorphine compound was much more
powerful than morphine, but its effects did not
last as long. Though it was briefly marketed under
its brand name Permonid, it was only in the early
2000s that the abuse of home-synthesised
desomorphine was reported in eastern and
Generally, desomorphine is home-made from a
Red phosphorous (from matchbox strike plates)
Sometimes over-the-counter eye drops
(tropicamide) are added to make the high last a
About a third of the cost of heroin.
Methods of use
Heroin users in Europe have been known to turn
to Krokodil – the ‘poor man’s heroin’, but
generally people don’t last long on it. It’s
estimated they will die within two years of the
addiction beginning. Users cook up their drugs in
their own kitchens to ensure that they can
remain high. Cooking up takes a half hour to an
hour and for addicts, may become a full-time job.
Their concoction is a fudge-coloured liquid, which
they then inject. Often their skin becomes
damaged and gangrenous – one only has to
Google a few images to see the destruction this
drug will cause.
Effects on the user
Users experience a high of a maximum an hour
and a half. The high is similar to the one
experienced with heroin.
Harmful side effects and health risks
Skin turns a yellowish-green and scaly before
gangrene sets in
Ulcers around the injection side
Ruptured blood vessels
Burning or swelling of the veins (phlebitis)
Flesh rots to the bone
Rotten teeth fall out
Blood poisoning and other infections
Blood-borne diseases from shared needles e.g.
hepatitis and HIV.
The high dosage of iodine can disrupt the glands
in the body from producing the hormones needed
for muscle control. Bone tissue is destroyed by
phosphorus. The nervous system is attacked by
heavy metals such as iron, zinc, lead and
antimony, which can lead to inflammation and
the liver and kidneys shutting down. The
circulation will be cut off and essentially the user
will rot to death. Most reports talk of lengthy,
agonising deaths, not overdose.
Withdrawal is extremely painful and reportedly
much worse than with heroin. While a heroine
withdrawal can last up to ten days, a krokodil
withdrawal lasts about a month and the patient
will need tranquilisers in order not to lose
consciousness from the pain. It is one of the
hardest addictions to treat and if the user
survives may be left with amputated limbs,
speech impediments, an empty gaze and loss of
Krokodil and the law
Krokodil is an illegal substance in South Africa, as
per the Drug and Drug Trafficking Act 140 of
1992. The manufacturing, dealing, use and/or
possession of krokodil are unlawful. A person
convicted of an offence under this Act could face
a serious fine, or even imprisonment.
Krokodil | Crocodile | Poor Man’s Heroin
This article is about the secret society. For
the film, see Illuminata (film). For the Muslim
esoteric school, see Illuminationism. For
other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation).
Adam Weishaupt (1748–1830),
founder of the Bavarian
The Illuminati (plural of Latin illuminatus,
“enlightened”) is a name given to several
groups, both real and fictitious. Historically
the name refers to the Bavarian Illuminati,
an Enlightenment-era secret society founded
on May 1, 1776 to oppose superstition,
prejudice, religious influence over public life,
abuses of state power, and to support
women’s education and gender equality. The
Illuminati were outlawed along with other
secret societies by the Bavarian government
leadership with the encouragement of the
Roman Catholic Church, and permanently
disbanded in 1785. In the several years
following, the group was vilified by
conservative and religious critics who
claimed they had regrouped and were
responsible for the French Revolution.
In subsequent use, “Illuminati” refers to
various organizations claiming or purported
to have unsubstantiated links to the original
Bavarian Illuminati or similar secret societies,
and often alleged to conspire to control
world affairs by masterminding events and
planting agents in government and
corporations to establish a New World Order
and gain further political power and
influence. Central to some of the most widely
known and elaborate conspiracy theories,
the Illuminati have been depicted as lurking
in the shadows and pulling the strings and
levers of power in dozens of novels, movies,
television shows, comics, video games, and
The Owl of Minerva
perched on a book was an
emblem used by the
Bavarian Illuminati in their
The movement was founded on May 1,
1776, in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria) as the
Order of the Illuminati, with an initial
membership of five, by Jesuit-taught
Adam Weishaupt (d. 1830), who was the
first lay professor of canon law at the
University of Ingolstadt. It was made up
of freethinkers as an offshoot of the
Enlightenment and seems to have been
modeled on the Freemasons. The
Illuminati’s members took a vow of secrecy
and pledged obedience to their superiors.
Members were divided into three main
classes, each with several degrees, and
many Illuminati chapters drew membership
from existing Masonic lodges.
The goals of the organization included trying
to eliminate superstition, prejudice, and the
Roman Catholic Church’s domination over
government, philosophy, and science; trying
to reduce oppressive state abuses of power,
and trying to support the education and
treatment of women as intellectual equals.
 Originally Weishaupt had planned the
order to be named the “Perfectibilists”.
The group has also been called the Bavarian
Illuminati and its ideology has been called
“Illuminism”. Many influential intellectuals
and progressive politicians counted
themselves as members, including
Ferdinand of Brunswick and the diplomat
Xavier von Zwack, the second-in-command
of the order. The order had branches in
most European countries: it reportedly had
around 2,000 members over the span of ten
years. It attracted literary men such as
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann
Gottfried Herder and the reigning dukes of
Gotha and Weimar.
In 1777, Karl Theodor became ruler of
Bavaria. He was a proponent of Enlightened
Despotism and his government banned all
secret societies including the Illuminati.
Internal rupture and panic over succession
preceded its downfall. A March 2, 1785
government edict “seems to have been
deathblow to the Illuminati in Bavaria.”
Weishaupt had fled and documents and
internal correspondences, seized in 1786
and 1787, were subsequently published by
the government in 1787. Von Zwack’s
home was searched to disclose much of the
↑Jump back a section
Barruel and Robison
Between 1797 and 1798 Augustin Barruel’s
Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism
and John Robison’s Proofs of a Conspiracy
both publicized the theory that the Illuminati
had survived and represented an ongoing
international conspiracy, including the claim
that it was behind the French Revolution.
Both books proved to be very popular,
spurring reprints and paraphrases by others
 (a prime example is Proofs of the Real
Existence, and Dangerous Tendency, Of
Illuminism by Reverend Seth Payson,
published in 1802). Some response was
critical, such as Jean-Joseph Mounier’s On
the Influence Attributed to Philosophers,
Free-Masons, and to the Illuminati on the
Revolution of France.
Robison and Barruel’s works made their way
to the United States. Across New England,
Reverend Jedidiah Morse and others
sermonized against the Illuminati, their
sermons were printed, and the matter
followed in newspapers. The concern died
down in the first decade of the 1800s,
though had some revival during the Anti-
Masonic movement of the 1820s and 30s.
↑Jump back a section
Several recent and present-day fraternal
organizations claim to be descended from
the original Bavarian Illuminati and openly
use the name “Illuminati.” Some such
groups use a variation on “The Illuminati
Order” in the name of their organization,
 while others such as the Ordo Templi
Orientis use “Illuminati” as a level within
their organization’s hierarchy. However,
there is no evidence that these present-day
groups have amassed significant political
power or influence, and they promote
unsubstantiated links to the Bavarian
Illuminati as a means of attracting
membership instead of trying to remain
↑Jump back a section
Main article: Illuminati in popular culture
Modern conspiracy theory
Main article: New World Order (conspiracy
There is no evidence that the original
Bavarian Illuminati survived its suppression
in 1785. However, writers such as Mark
Dice,David Icke, Texe Marrs, Jüri Lina
and Morgan Gricar have argued that the
Bavarian Illuminati survived, possibly to this
day. Many of these theories propose that
world events are being controlled and
manipulated by a secret society calling itself
the Illuminati.Conspiracy theorists
have claimed that many notable people were
or are members of the Illuminati. Presidents
of the United States are a common target for
A key figure in the conspiracy theory
movement, Myron Fagan, devoted his latter
years to finding evidence that a variety of
historical events from Waterloo, The French
Revolution, President John F. Kennedy’s
assassination and an alleged communist plot
to hasten the New World Order by infiltrating
the Hollywood film industry, were all
orchestrated by the Illuminati.
The Illuminati (or fictitious modern groups
called the Illuminati) play a central role in
the plots of novels, such as The Illuminatus!
Trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton
Wilson; in Foucault’s Pendulum by Umberto
Eco; and Angels and Demons by Dan Brown.
A mixture of historical fact, established
conspiracy theory, or pure fiction, is used to
↑Jump back a section
1. ^ a b c d e f g McKeown, Trevor W. (16
February 2009). “A Bavarian Illuminati
Primer” . Grand Lodge of British Columbia
and Yukon A.F. & A.M. Archived from the
original on 27 January 2011. Retrieved 27
2. ^ a b c Stauffer, Vernon (1918). New
England and the Bavarian Illuminati . NY:
Columbia University Press. pp. 133–134.
OCLC 2342764 . Retrieved 27 January
3. ^ Stauffer, p. 129.
4. ^ Goeringer, Conrad (2008). “The
Enlightenment, Freemasonry, and The
Illuminati” . American Atheists. Archived
from the original on 27 January 2011.
Retrieved 27 January 2011.
5. ^ a b Introvigne, Massimo (2005).
“Angels & Demons from the Book to the
Movie FAQ – Do the Illuminati Really
Exist?” . Center for Studies on New
Religions. Archived from the original on 27
January 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
6. ^ Roberts, J.M. (1974). The Mythology of
Secret Societies. NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0-684-12904-4.
7. ^ Simpson, David (1993). Romanticism,
Nationalism, and the Revolt Against Theory.
University of Chicago Press.
8. ^ Payson, Seth (1802). Proofs of the Real
Existence, and Dangerous Tendency, Of
Illuminism . Charlestown: Samuel
Etheridge. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
9. ^ “The Illuminati Order Homepage” .
Illuminati-order.com. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
10. ^ “Official website of The Illuminati
Order” . Illuminati-order.org. Retrieved